Preventive and
Lifestyle Medicine

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Lifestyle disorders such as cardiovascular disorders (heart disease, stroke, kidney disease), diabetes, mental health problems, breathing problems and cancer are the leading cause of death and disability in India. The highest number of diabetics in the world, and 60% of the global burden of cardiovascular disorders are in India. These disorders are expected to rise significantly in the next 25 years.

This is why Preventive and Lifestyle Medicine is important. Our vision is to detect and prevent disease before it starts. Make an appointment with us today and take advantage of our services.

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People are less physically active. They are walking less, and for many people office work has replaced physically demanding agricultural labor. Even in the rural areas, other than agricultural labor, most people have motorized transport as well as mechanical gadgets in their kitchen. The need to gather water and wood, grind flour and other tasks have come down significantly. People are spending a lot more time engaged in sedentary activities such as watching television and using social media.

This is the heading

People are less physically active. They are walking less, and for many people office work has replaced physically demanding agricultural labor. Even in the rural areas, other than agricultural labor, most people have motorized transport as well as mechanical gadgets in their kitchen. The need to gather water and wood, grind flour and other tasks have come down significantly. People are spending a lot more time engaged in sedentary activities such as watching television and using social media.

This is the heading

People are less physically active. They are walking less, and for many people office work has replaced physically demanding agricultural labor. Even in the rural areas, other than agricultural labor, most people have motorized transport as well as mechanical gadgets in their kitchen. The need to gather water and wood, grind flour and other tasks have come down significantly. People are spending a lot more time engaged in sedentary activities such as watching television and using social media.

LIFESTYLE DISEASES -
CAUSES FOR THE RISE

Why are lifestyle disorders increasing?

People are less physically active. They are walking less, and for many people office work has replaced physically demanding agricultural labor. Even people living in rural areas, other than agricultural labor, have motorized transport and mechanical gadgets in their kitchen. Therefore the need to gather water and wood, grind flour and other tasks have come down significantly. People are spending a lot more time engaged in sedentary activities such as watching television and using social media.

Malnutrition is still a major problem for below poverty line people in India. At the same time, obesity has become a problem in the urbanized and more affluent populace. Indians have always consumed a diet rich in carbohydrates (rice, rotis), which was not a problem in the past, when we were engaged in hard physical labor.  However, now that we are less physically active and are consuming more salt, sugar, preservatives and junk food, our diet is predisposing us to diabetes.  Evidence also shows that Indians are susceptible to having a greater degree of insulin resistance. All of these factors are leading to an increase in obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes, known as the metabolic syndrome

82% of Indians suffer from stress resulting from work, health and financial concerns (Cigna 360 Well-being Survey, 2019). Moving from close knit communities to a city where relations and support systems are less strong, and changes in family structure, may contribute greatly to this. Compared to the joint family structure, we are seeing more nuclear families, divorce and single parenting.

We have become a 24-hour society with 24-hour availability of electricity, television, video on demand, social media and internet. This, together with other poor lifestyle habits, has resulted in an increase in poor sleep patterns in India.

This is prevalent in both urban and rural areas.

Air pollution and poor waste management leading to poor quality of air and water can lead to breathing and heart problems as well as cancer. This includes asthma, COPD, bronchitis, lung cancer and heart attack.

Once you or a family member develops a chronic illness, the cost of hospitalization, medications, loss of productivity at work due to disability or absence will be extremely high. A single hospitalization may cost lacs of rupees.

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Dr. Harshitha Reddy P

Consultant General Medicine

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Dr. Varun M

Consultant General Medicine

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Sindhu

Nurse In Charge of Preventative Health Checks

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HELPING YOU LIVE BETTER

ADDRESSING YOUR CONCERNS

Who is at risk?

Depression is a common and serious illness which negatively affects the way you feel, think and act.    

Table 2. Who is at risk for developing depression?

Vulnerable Groups Reasons
Age 10-19 years
Adolescents face new stressors such as exams, college admissions, leaving home for college, peer pressure
Major life changes
Death or illness in family, divorce, victim of crime
Pregnancy and postpartum
Hormonal and significant lifestyle changes
Elderly people living alone
They may feel isolated and left out with loss of purpose in life. This is seen more commonly in men.
Financial problems
Loss in business, getting fired from job
Social Isolation
Especially after relocation to a new place

Many of us may have suffered from depression, but may not be aware of it.

Table 1. What are the symptoms of depression?

Depression can present differently in women and men.  Women present mostly with sadness, while men may appear angry and tend to use alcohol and drugs more.  Some people are also more vulnerable to depression (table 2)

Depression can drain your energy, making it difficult to work, take care of your home/ children and enjoy yourself.  If your symptoms are severe, you should visit your doctor. 

Being depressed, does not mean that you are weak.  Some people are genetically more prone to become depressed, but treatment is available.  With appropriate medication treatment and counselling, most people will feel better and can return to living a normal and happy life.

YOUR GUIDE TO HEALTHY LIVING

Importance of eating a balanced diet

Eating a healthy, balanced diet is an important part of maintaining good health. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions. Not eating the right type and correct quantity of food can lead to nutritional deficiencies, obesity and other health problems. Being overweight or obese will increase your risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

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My healthy plate

One way to plan your daily diet is to use MY HEALTHY PLATE for your 2 big meals of the day. This is an easy to understand visual guide for creating balanced and healthy meals, using a 11-inch plate. If you have diabetes, kidney disease or any condition with special diet requirements, this advice may not apply to you and you will need to speak with your doctor.

Choosing the right food​

EXAMPLES COMMENTS
Carbohydrates
Millets (Ragi, Jowar, Bajra, Jonna, Sajjalu) Pulses (Dals) (Toor, Urad, Chana, Moong) Rice, Cereal, Wheat, Oats. Starch: Potatoes, Sweet Potato, Yam, Chamadumpa
Brown, red or parboiled rice is better than polished rice. Pulses and Millets have a lower glycemic index and more fiber - eat more of these. Avoid too much starchy vegetables.
Protein
Eggs, Meat, Fish, Poultry, Kidney Beans, Chickpea, Black/Yellow Lentils, Moong, Toor and Chana Dal Peanuts, Goruchikkudu, Chikkudu
Eat protein daily. There are also many vegetarian sources of protein.
Fruit
Mango, Papaya, Banana, Apple, Guava, Grapes, Pomegranate, Pineapple
Vegetables
Roots - Beetroot, Radish, Carrot, Green Leafy Vegetables - Spinach (Paalak), Drumstick Leaves, Fenugreek Leaves, Coriander and Curry Leaves Other – Cauliflower, Ridge Gourd, Bottle Gourd, Snake Gourd, Cabbage, Tomatoes, Onions, Bell Pepper, Drumstick
Different colored fruits and vegetables have different vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Choose a rainbow of colors to eat. They are also a rich source of fiber. Select seasonal varieties.
Milk Products + Fats
Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, Buttermilk, Paneer, Oils
Rich source of calcium and protein

HEALTHY EATING

Do's Dont's​
Drink plenty of water
Avoid sweetened sodas, juices and cool drinks.
If you are hungry between meals, eat small quantities of fruit, seeds or nuts.
Avoid frequent snacking. It is okay to be hungry for a while.
It is okay to have these items occasionally during festivals or special occasions.
Do not eat junk food like biscuits, cakes, sweets, chips, and savory items regularly.
Portion control is key to healthy eating.
Avoid eating large quantities of food, especially rice.
Home cooked food is the best!
Avoid eating outside food frequently.

Breakfast: Try to use millets and pulses. Add fruit, vegetables and protein to your recipes.

Lunch should be your bigger meal and dinner should be light. Eat dinner 2-3 hours before bedtime.

It is important to incorporate protein and fiber in your diet. Nuts, fruit and vegetables have fiber.

Plan a 7-day menu, so that you are not eating the same items daily.

Why is exercise important?

Physical activity and exercise are important in maintaining good health. Regular exercise will help you feel energetic, strong and happy. It will help you sleep better and have stronger bones.

A sedentary lifestyle (with no physical activity) increases risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, depression, osteoporosis and some cancers.

What are the different types of exercises?

Aerobic exercise is low to high intensity physical activity, which allows your heart and lungs to supply oxygen to your body.

Muscle strengthening and stretching exercise will strengthen your muscles and bones. It will also improve your flexibility.

What is the difference between moderate and vigorous exercise?

Exercise does not have to be planned, it can also be incorporated into work and daily physical activity.

MODERATE

VIGOROUS

How much exercise do I need?​

Aerobic exercise
Moderate aerobic exercise for 150 minutes / week (or) Vigorous exercise for 75 minutes / week*
You may start with 10-minutes / day, then slowly increase the time you exercise You can combine moderate and vigorous exercise.
Muscle strengthening and flexibility exercise
At least 2 days a week for 15 minutes each time.**
Include all major muscles of your body: neck, shoulders, arms, chest, abdomen, back, hips, knees, thighs and legs.

If you have heart disease, breathing problems, restriction or severe pain with movement, you should see a doctor before starting to exercise.
While exercising, if you develop chest pain, severe shortness of breath, dizziness or severe pain, STOP EXERCISE immediately and see a doctor immediately.

*American Heart Association, ** American College of Exercise

Walk and use the stairs as much as you can.

If you do not have time to exercise at one go, split it into bouts throughout the day.

Always warm-up and cool down before and after aerobic exercise

What is stress?

Stress is the body’s response to changes in the environment. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert, motivated and ready to respond to danger. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief, or when a person is extremely sensitive to stress.

What are the effects of stress?

This negative response can disturb the body’s internal balance or equilibrium, leading to physical symptoms like headaches, difficulty sleeping, high blood pressure, elevated heart rate, upset stomach, and sexual dysfunction. Exaggerated stress can also lead to anxiety and depression. Research suggests that stress can bring on or worsen control of chronic disease states and is linked to some of the leading causes of death: heart disease, cancer, breathing problems (asthma) and suicide. In order to deal with stress, people may develop habits like avoiding work and social activities. Others may develop compulsive behavior such as over-eating, smoking, alcoholism, gambling, and overindulgence with shopping and internet. However, rather than relieving stress, these behaviors tend to keep the body in a stressed state.

How to manage stress

Although not all stressful circumstances can be changed, you can learn to manage your stress
and lead a healthier and happier life. Some tips are:

What is sleep?

Although we spend nearly 1/3rd of our day sleeping, a proper definition for sleep is not available. Kryger, Roth and Dement textbook describes it as “a state of behavioral quiescence, where you are unaware and unresponsive to the environment.”